Nervous System

Cauda Equina Syndrome


Cauda Equina Syndrome, also known as degenerative lumbosacral stenosis, in dogs is a compression of the cauda equina by a narrowing of the lumbosacral vertebral canal. It is most commonly seen in German Shepherd Dogs. Signs include pain, weakness, and rear limb muscle atrophy.


Cerebellar Abiotrophy


Cerebellar Abiotrophy is caused by the death of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. It results in progressive ataxia beginning at a young age. It is most commonly seen in Kerry Blue Terriers and Gordon Setters.


Cerebellar Hypoplasia


Cerebellar Hypoplasia is an incomplete development of the cerebellum. The most common cause in dogs is an in utero infection with canine herpesvirus. It is also seen associated with lissencephaly in Wire-haired Fox Terriers and Irish Setters, and as a separate condition in Chow Chows.


Coonhound Paralysis


Coonhound Paralysis is a type of polyradiculoneuritis seen in Coonhounds. The cause has been related to a raccoon bite. Signs include rear leg weakness progressing rapidly to paralysis, and decreased reflexes.


dumb madness


Oliver and Boyd,"Edinburgh Medical Journal"(Volume 24, Part 2) 1879:


As regards the dog, I have been very much puzzled—and probably my readers will be so also — by the very different views taken by veterinarians, or by sporting authorities, who have had a large experience of dogs and their ailments, as to what constitutes rabies and what hydrophobia, for both terms are sometimes technically and distinctively, sometimes indiscriminately and synonymously, employed.


Nature, of 14th December 1871, tells us that "old works upon canine diseases used to specify seven species of canine madness, dumb madness among them, the last and worst being running madness, which was no doubt hydrophobia; though probably many other phases of so-called madness were simply distemper, which, in primitive days, was little understood as a specific disease."


The Honourable Grantley Berkeley, "who perhaps has had more experience in kennel management than any other sportsman" (upwards of fifty years' experience), regards hydrophobia and dumb madness (or distemper madness) as different insanities; the first invariably fatal, the other seldom so. According to him the diagnostic symptom that can be relied upon in true hydrophobia is refusal to approach or lap water.


So nearly allied are these two insanities, that the lapping of water in one instance, and the horror of water in the other, are the facts that at first sight distinguish one disease from another." According to his view every hydrophobic dog will "go into convulsions at the sight of water." But his opinion is regarded as untenable by the authorities of The Field (newspaper), who tell us that " over and over again has this mistake been pointed out to Mr Grantley Berkeley in our columns and elsewhere. There have been adduced by the score well-known cases of true hydrophobia in which the do^s have exhibited no horror of water, in which,indeed, the opposite disposition has been displayed;" yet they complain that he continues obstinately to propagate the mischievous dogma that people "may safely dispense with all precautions if they are bitten by a dog which will lap water. 1 These diseases differ markedly, however, in the relative frequency of their occurrence; for while of true hydrophobia Berkeley met with only a single case, he has had "hundreds of cases in his kennels at different times " of dumb madness.'


In a letter to the Times of 9th December 1871, Mr John Henderson thus described dumb madness3 as it broke out in the Durham kennel of fox-hounds. "The first hound, a quiet animal, showed premonitory symptoms of madness, when the pack, after a severe run, were breaking up their fox, by biting and snapping at every dog he could get near." Most properly he was forthwith isolated " in order to ascertain the nature of the attack. . . . Towards the end of the third day he became furiously mad, biting at everything within reach. On his way home, on the day of seizure, he u crossed a brook without reluctance and lapped water freely. Two days later I saw him lap broth when in a condition so mad that he flew at any one coming near the door of his kennel." Post-mortem examination showed the stomach to be full of straw, chips of wood, and similar indigestible and heterogeneous material. The animals subsequently affected gave rise to " fighting and noise. . . . worrying each other, covered with blood and furiously mad," the others (still unaffected) being "crouched up in a corner frightened and trembling."


Mr Augustine Butler, master of the Clare hounds (Ballyline, Oranmore, Ireland), speaks of dumb madness as synonymous with melancholy! He thus describes its sudden incidence. "After a long and good day's sport . . . one of the hardest-working and best hounds in the pack refused its mess." It was at once isolated for ten days, and the disease disappeared; so that the disease is not invariably fatal as is sometimes represented.' The Animal World reports a case of a dog in a state of inconsolable grief at the loss of its mistress; it "sickened" into "dumb madness," to escape the agonies of which it was killed, in the belief, no doubt, of the incurability of that disorder and its dangerousness to man.


A still more suggestive instance of the same kind of confusion between rabietic and other forms of madness is the following: On the day of the funeral of a certain lady her seven dogs, living in or about the house, "all displayed unequivocal signs of madness, and were enclosed in the stable-yard and shot down by the servants from windows overlooking it." One escaped, and bit three cows, that became hydrophobic, and were shot as being so. Now, as to the lady's chief favourite among these dogs, we are told that it was an "ill-tempered, suspicious brute," a bitch, which, however, when her mistress returned after a long absence from home "very nearly lost her life from joy, and did lose a litter of puppies. Years afterwards the lady died abroad, and her body was brought home in a leaden coffin. The effect on the dog, which had remained at home, was that it yelled with agony and leaped again and again upon the coffin, with piteous gesticulations of fondness and despair."4 So sensitive an animal may well have become insane from grief; and the form its insanity assumed may well have been acute mania. But that other six dogs—probably of far less impressionable constitutions — should have been simultaneously affected with madness of any kind, is one of those assertions regarding animal rabies, or its allies, which "no fellow can understand."


In an article on Canine Madness, when Communicable and when Non-Communicable to Man,"1 Dr Philpots of Poole, Dorsetshire, likewise distinguishes hydrophobia in the dog from rabies, which latter he denominates distemper madness. He adopts Berkeley's view that true hydrophobia is rare and dangerous; while rabies is common and innocuous—except in so far as any animal bite may prove troublesome to man by reason of its size, depth, or other conditions. He holds, with Berkeley, that hydrophobia is distinguished by dread of water; rabies, by longing for it; the first-named disease being invariably fatal, the second frequently curable; the latter preventible, for instance by vaccination, while the former is unaffected thereby. Heat of weather, he avers, has no effect in producing hydrophobia, but it assists the development of rabies, or aggravates it when developed. As confidently as Berkeley does, he speaks of " most indisputably deciding as to what is a hydrophobic and what a rabid dog."


Pierquin regards canine rabies as a true mania,—marked by the development of a special propensity to bite; in other words, he holds that it is but a biting mania or monomania. But he confounds the insanity of rabies with the disease itself; he makes the mistake of regarding the morbid mental phenomena as constituting the disease.


It would appear, from the discussions that occurred in the Times, Veterinarian, and Field, in 1871, that while dumb madness is regarded as essentially a throat disease, similar to diphtheria, some authorities describe it as rabies, or a form thereof; while others hold that it is something quite distinct, though they fail to point out in what the distinction consists, and what are the typical features of rabies.1 We have seen that Berkeley and his disciples separate hydrophobia from rabies (or dumb madness). We have obviously thus three diseases in the dog described under different names, by different authorities—veterinary, medical, and sporting, regarding whose real nature there is yet much to be learned. My own belief is that there is but one disease—rabies; and that this term is preferable to any of the others, whether for man or other animals. Not that it is quite, unobjectionable, for, as Fleming3 points out, the word rabies u strictly implies fury, madness, fierceness "—conditions or phenomena that are mere symptoms of many different diseases.


But it is more appropriate than hydrophobia—a term based on a symptom of a far less constant and important character, one that is absent sometimes in the genuine rabies both of man and the dog.  And this application to man of the term rabies leads jne to protest against the unnecessary and confusing multiplication of designations for what is virtually the same disease, whether it occur in man or other animals. Even restricting ourselves to the single generic term rabies, there is ample scope for nomenclature and classification by those who have a hankering after finical elaborations. It is quite permissible to speak of Rabies humarui, R. canina, R. felina, R. equina, R. ovina, R. porcina, R. cervina, R. mephitica* and so forth, according as the disease is developed in man, the dog, cat, horse, sheep, pig, deer, skunk, or other animals. And it might be admitted that in animals differing so much in structure and habits, what is essentially the same disease manifests certain modifications in its phenomena sufficient to satisfy those who pounce upon minute and trivial differences as the bases of classification and nomenclature, overlooking as they do, and, in fact, unable to appreciate as they are, broad general resemblances. The division of rabies into species according to the animal affected is not, however, without its advantages, as it serves to show at a glance how many different genera and species are subject to this one disease, and what must be the number and nature of its forms or phases to be looked for in such a diversity of animal organisms.


Still more inappropriate or improper is the use of the term "Mad" as a synonym for rabies.' As I have pointed out fully elsewhere,4 there are many forms of madness in the lower animals, of which forms rabies is but one, and not a common one. I have already said so much on the subject of animal insanity, especially of mania and melancholia, that it is unnecessary here to recapitulate my own views. "Authorities have hitherto denied the existence of any other form of insanity among dogs than the well known and formidable madness familiar to us all under the name of hydrophobia."


The following are illustrations of confusion of terms, even by the most eminent writers :


  • Druitt considers dumb madness a form of hydrophobia, marked by an early paralysis of the muscles of the mouth and jaws. Rabies is described as hydrophobia in the cow, pig, dog, cat, and a tame crane—all bit by the same rabietic dog—by Dr Grzymala, of Podolia, British and Foreign Medico-Ohirurgical Review, October 1876, p. 461. Walsh on The Horse, p. 519, speaks synonymously of rabies, hydrophobia, and madness, as do most writers on the diseases of animals.

  • Rabies mephitica—from the bite of the common skunk of North America— produces effects in man similar to those of dog-bite. The Rev. H. C. Hovey mentions forty-one cases of hydrophobia so produced in man, whereof forty were fatal.—American Journal of Science, May 1874, quoted in Nature, 4th June 1874, p. 95.

  • 'That it is still generally employed as a synonym for rabid or rabietic, or, as Fleming calls it, rabaic, may be seen from his work on Rabies, pp. 5, 138, and 140; or from Youatt's work on the Dog, p. 109.


A correspondent of the Field of 3d August, 1872, p. 106, thus describes a case of canine madness, which was neither hydrophobia nor distemper, though it was associated with convulsions:—" Whilst the dog was lying quietly under the shade of a verandah, he suddenly jumped up and began to howl and yelp and run about." He had " a peculiarly wild expression in his eyes, and, though generally very obedient, appeared to pay little or no attention when called upon by name.' He "appeared as if lost, running in and out of every garden in his way.' The dog was four years old, u and had had the distemper early."


The same journal, the Field, of 19th October 1872, tells us that "all those who are experienced in the maladies to which dogs are subject are agreed that there is a form of distemper resembling true rabies, just as there are febrile conditions of the brain in the human subject which, by an ordinary observer, might be mistaken for insanity."


Harry Harewood, “A Dictionary of Sports”, London: T. Tegg and son, 1835:


Dumb madness is so called because there is seldom any barking heard, but more particularly because the jaw drops paralytic, aud the tongue lolls out of the mouth, black, and apparently strangulated. A strong general character of the disease, is the disposition to scratch their bed towards their belly; and equally so is the general tendency to eat trash, as hay, straw, wood, coals, dirt, Sec.; and it should be remembered, that this is so very common and invariable, that the finding these matters in the stomach after death, should always confirm the previously formed notion of the existence of the disease. Blaine is also at great pains to disprove the notion generally entertained, that rabid dogs are averse to water; and neither drink nor come near it. This error he contends has led to most dangerous results; and is so far from true, that mad dogs from their heat and fever are solicitous for water, and lap it eagerly. W hen the dumb kind exists in its full force, dogs cannot swallow what they attempt to lap; but still they will plunge their heads iu it, and appear to fee! relief by it; but in no instance out of many hundreds, did he ever discover the smallest aversion to it. He lays very great stress on the noise made by rabid dogs, which he says is neither a bark nor a howl, but a tone compounded of both. It has been said by some, that this disorder is occasioned by heat or bad food, and by others, that it never arises from any other cause but the bite. Accordingly, this malady is rare in the northern parts of Turkey, more rare in the southern provinces of that empire, and totally unknown under the burning sky ol Egypt. At Aleppo, where these animals perish in great numbers, for want of water and food, and by the heat of the climate, this disorder was never tnown. In other parts of Africa, and in the hottest zone of America, dogs are never attacked with madness. Blaine knows of no instance of the complaint being cured, although he has tried to their fullest extent the popular remedies of profuse bleedings, strong mercurial and arsenical doses, vinegar, partial drowning, night-shade, water-plantain, fitc.; he therefore recommends the attention to be principally directed towards the prevention of the malady. The preventive treatment of rabies or madness is, according to Blaine, always an easy process in the human subject, from the immediate part bitten being easily detected ; in which case the removal of the part by excision or cautery is an effectual remedy.


But, unfortunately for the agriculturalist, it is not easy to detect the bitten parts in cattle, nor in dogs; and it would be therefore most desirable, if a certain internal preventive were generally known. Dr. Mead's powder, the Ormskirk powder, sea-bathing, and many other nostrums are deservedly in disrepute ; while a few country medicines, but little known beyond their immediate precincts, have maintained some character. Conceiving that these must all possess some ingredient in common, he was at pains to discover it; and which he appears to have realized, by obtaining, among others, the composition of Webb's Watford drink. In this mixture, which is detailed below, he considers the active ingredients to be the buxus or box, which has been known as aprophylacticas long as the times of Hippocrates and Celsus, who both mention it. The recipe, detailed below, has been administered to near three hundred animals of different kinds, as horses, cows, sheep, swine, and dogs; and appears to have succeeded in nineteen out of every twenty cases, where it was fairly taken and kept on the stomach. It appears also equally efficacious in the human subject ; in which case he advises the extirpation of the bitten parts also. The box preventive is thus directed to be prepared:—Take of the fresh leaves of the tree-box two ounces, of the fresh leaves of rue two ounces, of sage half an ounce, chop these fine, and boil it in a pint of water to half a pint; strain carefully, and press out the liquor very firmly; put back the ingredients into a pint of milk, and boil again to half a pint; strain as before; mix both liquors, which forms three doses for a human subject. Double this quantity is proper for a horse or cow. Two thirds of the quantity is sufficient for a large dog, half for a middling sized, and one third for a small dog. Three doses are sufficient, given each subsequent morning, fasting; the quantity directed being that which forms these three doses. As it sometimes produces strong effects on dogs, it may be proper to begin with a small dose; but in the case of dogs we hold it always prudent to increase the dose till effects are evident, by the sickness, panting, and uneasiness of the dog.


In the human subject, where this remedy appears equally efficacious, we have never witnessed any unpleasant or active effects, neither are such observed in cattle of any kind: but candour obliges us to add, that in a considerable proportion of these, other means were used, as the actual or potential cautery; but in all the animals other means were purposely omitted. That this remedy, therefore, has a preventive quality, ia unquestionable, and now perfectly established ; for there was not the smallest doubt of the animals mentioned either having been bitten, or of the dog being mad who bit them, as great pains were in every instance taken to ascertain these points. To prevent canine madness, Pliny recommends worming of dogs; and from his time to the present it has had, most deservedly, says Daniel, its advocates. He tells us, that he has had various opportunities of proving the usefulness of this practice, and recommends its general introduction. Blaine, on the contrary, asserts that the practice of worming is wholly useless, and founded in error; and that the existence of anything like a worm under the tongue is incontestably proved to be false; and that what has been taken for it, is merely a deep ligature of the skin, placed there to restrain the tongue in its motions. He also observes that the pendulous state of the tongue in what is termed dumb madness, with the existence of a partial paralysis of the under jaw, by which they could not bite, having happened to dogs previously wormed, has made the inability to be attributed to this source, but which is wholly an accidental circumstance; and happens equally to the wormed and unwormed dog.


Sir Norman Lockyer,  Nature (Volume 5), -Macmillan Journals ltd., 1872:


IT is stated in Land and Water that the whole of the pack of fox-hounds of the Durham County Hunt has been condemned to be destroyed in consequence of the prevalence among it of a form of hydrophobia defined as "dumb madness," which has run through the kennels, and has carried off twelve couple of hounds. As to the details of this "dumb madness," it will be interesting to hear more of the exact symptoms attending it. Old works upon canine diseases used to specify seven species of canine madness, "dumb madness" among them, the last and worst being "running madness," which was undoubtedly hydrophobia, though probably many other phases of so-called madness were simply distemper, which in primitive days was little understood as a specific disease.




Epilepsy in dogs can be a primary, idiopathic, inherited disorder or secondary to previous head trauma or CNS infections. Idiopathic epilepsy is commonly found in breeds such as German Shepherd Dogs, Beagles, and Dachshunds. The most common sign is recurring generalized seizures that begin at a young adult age.


Facial Nerve Paralysis


Facial Nerve Paralysis is most commonly caused in dogs by trauma, otitis media, or as an idiopathic condition. Signs include an inability to blink, drooping of the ear, and drooping of the lips on the affected side, although in chronic conditions fibrosis occurs and the ear and lips may appear to be in an abnormal position.


Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis


Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis (GME) (including Pug Dog encephalitis and other noninfectious causes of meningoencephalitis) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system of dogs. It is a form of meningoencephalitis. The disease is more common in female toy dogs of young and middle age.





Hugh Chisholm, "The Encyclopædia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information", Volume 14, 1910:


HYDROPHOBIA (Gr. t&jp, water, and 660os, fear; so called from the symptom of dread of water), or RABIES (Lat. for " madness ").an acute disease, occurring chiefly in certain of the lower animals, particularly the canine species, and liable to be communicated by them to other animals and to man.

In Dogs, fire.—The occurrcnce of rabies in the fox, wolf, hyaena, jackal, raccoon, badger and skunk has been asserted; but there is every probability that it is originally a disease of the dog. It is communicated by inoculation to nearly all, if not all, warm blooded creatures. The transmission from one animal to another only certainly takes place through inoculation with virulifcrous matters. The malady is generally characterized at a certain stage by an irrepressible desire in the animal to act offensively with its natural weapons—dogs and other carnivora attacking with their teeth, hcrbivora with their hoofs or horns, and birds with their beaks, when excited ever so slightly. In the absence of excitement the malady may run its course without any fit of fury or madness.

Symptoms.—The disease has been divided into three stages or periods, and has also been described as appearing in at least two forms, according to the peculiarities of the symptoms. But, as a rule, one period of the disease does not pass suddenly into another, the transition being almost imperceptible; and the forms do not differ essentially from each other, but appear merely to constitute varieties of the same disease, due to the natural disposition of the animal, or other modifying circumstances. These forms have been designated true or furious rabies (Fr. rave vrai; Ger. raunde Wuth) and dumb rabies (Fr. rage mue; Ger. stiue Wuth).

The malady docs not commence with fury and madness, but in a strange and anomalous change in the habits of the dog: it becomes dull, gloomy, and taciturn, and seeks to isolate itself in out-of-the-way places, retiring beneath chairs and to odd corners. But in its retirement it cannot rest: it is uneasy and fidgety, and no sooner has it lain down than suddenly it jumps up in an agitated manner, walks backwards and forwards several times, again lies down and assumes a sleeping attitude, but has only maintained it for a few minutes when it is once more moving about. Again it retires to its corner, to the farthest recess it can find, and huddles itself up into a heap, with its head concealed beneath its chest and fore-paws. This state of continual agitation and inquietude is in striking contrast with its ordinary habits, and should therefore receive attention. Not infrequently there are a few moments when the creature appears more lively than usual, and displays an extraordinary amount of affection. Sometimes there is a disposition to gather up straw, thread, bits of wood, &c., which are industriously carried away; a tendency to lick anything cold, as iron, stones, &c, is also observed in many instances; and there is also a desire evinced to lick other animals. Sexual excitement is also frequently an early symptom. At this period no disposition to bite is observed; the animal is docile with its master and obeys his voice, though not so readily as before, nor with the same pleased countenance.

There is something strange in the expression of its face, and the voice of its owner is scarcely able to make it change from a sudden gloominess to its usual animated aspect. These symptoms gradually become more marked; the restlessness and agitation increase. If on straw the dog scatters and pulls it about with its paws, and if in a room it scratches and tumbles the cushions or rugs on which it usually lies. It is incessantly on the move, rambling about, scratching the ground, sniffing in corners and at the doors, as if on the scent or seeking for something. It indulges in strange movements, as if affected of some mental influences or a prey to hallucinations. When not excited by any external influence it will remain for a brief period perfectly still and attentive, as if watching something, or following the movements of some creature on the wall; then it will suddenly dart forward and snap at the vacant air, as if pursuing an annoying object, or endeavouring to seize a fly. At another time it throws itself, yelling and furious, against the wall, as if it heard threatening voices on the other side, or was bent on attacking an enemy. Nevertheless, the animal is still docile and submissive, for its master's voice will bring it out of its frenzy. But the saliva is already virulent, and the excessive affection which it evinces at intervals, by licking the hands or face of those it loves, renders the danger very great should there be a wound or abrasion. Until a late period in the disease the master's voice has a powerful influence over the animal. When it has escaped from all control and wanders erratically abroad, ferocious and restless, and haunted by horrid phantoms, the familiar voice yet exerts its influence, and it is rare indeed that it attacks its master.

There is no dread of water in the rabid dog; the animal is generally thirsty, and if water be offered will lap it with avidity, and swallow it at the commencement of the disease. And when, at a later period, the constriction about the throat—symptomatic of the disease— renders swallowing difficult, the dog wilt none the less endeavour to drink, and the lappings are as frequent and prolonged when deglutition becomes impossible. So little dread has the rabid dog of water that it will ford streams and swim rivers; and when in the ferocious stage it will even do this in order to attack other creatures on the opposite side.

At the commencement of the disease the dog does not usually refuse to cat, and some animals are voracious to an unusual degree. But in a short time it becomes fastidious, only eating what it usually has a special predilection for. Soon, however, this gives place to a most characteristic symptom—either the taste becomes extremely depraved or the dog has a fatal and imperious desire to bite and ingest everything. The litter of its kennel, wool from cushions, carpets, stockings, slippers, wood, grass, earth, stones, glass, horse dung, even its own feces and urine, or whatever else may come in its way, are devoured. On examination of the body of a dog which has died of rabies it is so common to find in the stomach a quantity of dissimilar and strange matters on which the teeth have been exercised that, if there was nothing known of the animal's history, there would be strong evidence of its having been affected with the disease. When a dog, then, is observed to gnaw and cat suchlike matters, though it exhibits no tendency to bite, it should be suspected.
The mad dog does not usually foam at the mouth to any great extent at first. The mucus of the mouth is not much increased in quantity, but it soon becomes thicker, viscid, and glutinous, and adheres to the angles of the mouth, faces and teeth.

It is at this period that the thirst is most ardent, and the dog sometimes furiously attempts to detach the saliva with its paws; and if after a while it loses its balance in these attempts and tumbles over, there can no longer be any doubt as to the nature of the malady. There is another symptom connected with the mouth in that form of the disease named "dumb madness" which has frequently proved deceptive. The lower jaw drops in consequence of paralysis of its muscles, and the mouth remains open. The interior is dry from the air passing continually over it, and assumes a deep red tint, somewhat masked by patches of dust or earth, which more especially adhere to the upper surface of the tongue and to the lips. The strange alteration produced in the dog's physiognomy by its constantly open mouth and the dark colour of the interior is rendered still more characteristic by the dull, sad, or dead expression of the animal's eyes. In this condition the creature is not very dangerous, because generally it could not bite if it tried—indeed there does not appear to be much desire to bite in dumb madness; but the saliva is none the less virulent, and accidental inoculations with it, through imprudent handling, will prove as fatal as In the furious form. The mouth should not be touched, —numerous deaths having occurred through people thinking the dog had some foreign substance lodged in its throat, and thrusting their fingers down to remove it. The sensation of tightness which seems to exist at the throat causes the dog to act as if a bone were fixed between its teeth or towards the back of its mouth, and to employ its fore-paws as if to dislodge it. This is a very deceptive symptom, and may prove equally dangerous if caution be not 'observed. Vomiting of blood or a chocolate-coloured fluid is witnessed in some cases, and has been supposed to be due to the foreign substances in the stomach, which abrade the lining membrane; this, however, is not correct, as it has been observed in man.

The voice of the rabid dog is very peculiar, and so characteristic that to those acquainted with it nothing more is needed to prove the presence of the disease. Those who have heard it once or twice never forget its signification. Owing to the alterations taking place in the larynx the voice becomes hoarse, cracked and stridulous, like that of a child affected with croup—the " voix du coq," as the French have it. A preliminary bark is made in a somewhat elevated tone and with open mouth; this is immediately succeeded by five, six or eight decreasing howls, emitted when the animal is sitting or standing, and always with the nose elevated, which seem to come from the depths of the throat, the jaws not coming together and closing the mouth during such emission, as in the healthy bark. This alteration in the voice is frequently the first observable indication of the malady, and should at once attract attention. In dumb madness the voice is frequently lost from the very commencement —hence the designation.

The sensibility of the mad dog appears to be considerably diminished, and the animal appears to have lost the faculty of expressing the sensations it experiences: it is mute under the infliction of pain, though there can be no doubt that it still has peripheral sensation to some extent. Burning, beating and wounding produce much less effect than in health, and the animal will even mutilate itself with its teeth. Suspicion, therefore, should always strongly attach to a dog which docs not manifest a certain susceptibility to painful impressions and receives punishment without any cry or complaint. There is also reason for apprehension when a dog bites itself persistently in any part of its body. A rabid dog is usually stirred to fury at the sight of one of its own species: this test has been resorted to by Henrie Marie Bouley (1814-1885) to dissipate doubts as to the existence of the disease when the diagnosis is otherwise uncertain. As soon as the suspected animal, if it is really rabid, finds itself in the presence of another of its species it at once assumes the aggressive, and, if allowed, will bite furiously. All rabid animals indeed become excited, exasperated, and furious at the sight of a dog, and attack it with their natural weapons, even the timid sheep when rabid butts furiously at the enemy before which in health it would have fled in terror. This inversion of sentiment is sometimes valuable in diagnosing the malady; it is so common that it may be said to be present in every case of rabies. When, therefore, a dog, contrary to its habits and natural inclination, becomes suddenly aggressive to other dogs, it is time to take precautions.

In the large majority of instances the dog is inoffensive in the early period of the disease to those to whom it is familiar. It then flies from its home and either dies, is killed as " mad," or returns in a miserable plight, and in an advanced stage of the malady, when the desire to bite ¡s irresistible. It is in the early stage that sequestration and suppressive measures are most valuable. The dogs which propagate the disease are usually those that have escaped from their owners. After two or three days, frequently in about twelve hours, more serious and alarming symptoms appear, ferocious instincts are developed, and the desire to do injury is irrepressible. The animal has an indefinable expression of somber melancholy and cruelty. The eyes have their pupils dilated, and emit flashes of light when they are not dull and heavy; they always appear so hard as to produce terror in the beholder; they are red, and their sensibility to light is increased; and wrinkles, which sometimes appear on the forehead, add to the repulsive aspect of the animal. Il caged it flies at the spectator, emitting its characteristic howl or bark, and seizing the iron bars with its teeth, and if a stick be thrust before it this is grasped and gnawed. This fury is soon succeeded by lassitude, when the animal remains insensible to every excitement. Then all at once it rouses up again, and another paroxysm of fury commences. The first paroxysm is usually the most intense, and the fits vary in duration from some hours to a day, and even longer; they are ordinarily briefer in trained and pet dogs than in those which are less domesticated, but in alt the remission is so complete after the first paroxysm that the animals appear to be almost well, if not in perfect health.

During the paroxysms respiration is hurried and laboured, but tranquil during the remissions. There is an increase of temperature, and the pulse is quick and hard. When the animal is kept in a dark place and not excited, the 6ts of fury are not observed. Sometimes it is agitated and restless in the manner already described. It never becomes really furious or aggressive unless excited by external objects—the most potent of these, as has been said, being another dog, which, however, if it be admitted to its cage, it may not at once attack. The attacked animal rarely retaliates, but usually responds to the bites by acute yells, which contrast strangely with the silent anger of the aggressor, and tries to hide its head with its paws or beneath the straw. These repeated paroxysms hurry the course of the disease. The secretion, and flowing of a large quantity of saliva from the mouth are usually only witnessed in cases in which swallowing has become impossible, the mouth being generally dry. At times the tongue, nose and whole head appear swollen. Other dogs frequently shun one which U rabid, as if aware of their danger.

The rabid dog, if lodged in a room or kept in a house, is continually endeavouring to escape; and when it makes its escape it goes freely forward, as if impelled by some irresistible force. It travels considerable distances in a short time, perhaps attacking every living creature it meets—preferring dogs, however, to other animals, and these to mankind; cats, sheep, cattle and horses are particularly liable to be injured. It attacks in silence, and never utters a snarl or a cry of anger; should it chance to be hurt in return it emits no cry or howl of pain. The degree of ferocity appears to be related to natural disposition and training. Some dogs, for instance, will only snap or give a slight bite in passing, while others wilt bite furiously, tearing the objects presented to them, or which they meet in their way, and sometimes with such violence as to injure their mouth and break their teeth, or even their jaws. If chained, they will in some cases gnaw the chain until their teeth are worn away and the bones laid bare. The rabid dog does not continue its progress very long. Exhausted by fatigue and the paroxysms of madness excited in it by the objects it meets, as well as by hunger, thirst, and also, no doubt, by the malady, its limbs soon become feeble; the rate of travelling is lessened and the walk is unsteady, while its drooping tail, head inclined towards the ground, open mouth, and protruded tongue (of a leaden colour or covered with dust) give the distressed creature a very striking and characteristic physiognomy.

In this condition, however, it is much less to be dreaded than in its early fits of fury, since it is no longer capable or desirous of altering its course or going out of its way to attack an animal or a man not immediately in the path. It is very probable that its fast-failing vision, deadened scent, and generally diminished perception prevent its being so readily impressed or excited by surrounding objects as it previously was. To each paroxysm, which is always of short duration, there succeeds a degree of exhaustion as great as the fits have been violent and oft repeated. This compels the animal to stop; then ¡t shelters itself in obscure places—frequently in ditches by the roadside—and lies there in a somnolescent state for perhaps hours. There is great danger, nevertheless, in disturbing the dog at this period; for when roused from its stupor it has sometimes sufficient strength to inflict a bite. This period, which may be termed the second stage, is as variable in its duration as the first, but it rarely exceeds three or four days. The above-described phenomena gradually inerme into those of the third or last period, when symptoms of paralysis appear, which are speedily followed by death. During the remission in the paroxysms.

These paralytic symptoms are more particularly manifested in the hind limbs, which appear as if unable to support the animal's weight, and cause ¡t to stagger about; or the lower jaw becomes more or less drooping, leaving the parehed mouth partially open. Emaciation rapidly sets in, and the paroxysms diminish in intensity, while the remissions become less marked. The physiognomy assumes a still more sinister and repulsive aspect; the hair is dull and erect; the flanks are retracted; the eyes lose their lustre and are buried m the orbits, the pupil being dilated, and the cornea dull and semi opaque; very often, even at an early period, the eyes squint, and this adds still more to the terrifying appearance of the poor dog. The voice, if at all heard, is husky, the breathing laborious, and the pulse hurried and irregular. Gradually the paralysis increases, and the posterior extremities are dragged as if the animal's back were broken, until at length it becomes general; it is then the prelude to death. Or the dog remains lying in a state of stupor, and can only raise itself with difficulty on the lore-limbs when greatly excited. In this condition it may yet endeavor to bite at objects within its reach. At times convulsions of a tetanic character appear in certain muscles; at other times these are general. A comatose condition ensues, and the rabid dog, if permitted to die naturally, perishes, in the great majority of cases, (paralysis and asphyxia.

In dumb madness there is paralysis of the lower jaw, which imparts a curious and very characteristic physiognomy to the dog; the voice is also lost, and the animal can neither cat nor drink. In this condition the creature remains with its jaw pendent and the mouth consequently wide open, showing the flaccid or swollen tongue covered with brownish matter, and a stringy gelatinous looking saliva lying between it and the lower lip and coating the feces, which sometimes appear to be inflamed. Though the animal is unable to swallow fluids, the desire to drink is nevertheless intense; for the creature will thrust its face into the vessel of water in futile attempts to obtain relief, even until the approach of death. Water may be poured down its throat without inducing a paroxysm. The general physiognomy and demeanor of the poor creature inspire the beholder with pity rather than fear. The symptoms due to cerebral excitement are less marked than in the furious form of the disease; the agitation is not so considerable, and the restlessness, tendency to run away, and desire to bite are nearly absent; generally the animal is quite passive. Not unfrcqucntly one or both eyes squint, and it ¡s only when very much excited that the dog may contrive to close its mouth. Sometimes there is swelling about, the pharynx and the neck; when the tongue shares in this complication it hangs out of the mouth. In certain cases there is a catarrhal condition of the membrane lining the nasal cavities, larynx, and bronchi; sometimes the animal testifies to the existence of abdominal pain, and the feces are then soft or fluid. The other symptoms—such as the rapid exhaustion and emaciation, paralysis of the posterior limbs towards the termination of the disease, as well as the rapidity with which it runs its course— are the same as in the furious form.

The simultaneous occurrence of furious and dumb madness has frequently been observed in packs of fox-hounds. Dumb madness differs, then, from the furious type in the paralysis oí the lower jaw, which hinders the dog from biting, save in very exceptional circumstances; the ferocious instincts are also in abeyance; and there is no tendency to aggression. It has been calculated that from 15 to 20% of rabid dugs have this particular form of the disease. Puppies and young dogs chiefly have furious rabies.

These are the symptoms of rabies in the dog; but it is not likely, nor is ¡t necessary, that they will all be present in every case- In other species the symptoms differ more or less from those manifested by the dog, but they are generally marked by a change in the manner and habit of the creatures affected, with strong indications of nervous disturbance, in the majority of species amounting to ferociousness and a desire to injure, timid creatures becoming bold and aggressive.

In Human Beings.—The disease of hydrophobia has been known from early times, and is alluded to in the works of Aristotle, Xenophon, Plutareh, Virgil, Horace, Ovid and many others, as well as in those of the early writers on medicine. Cclsus gives detailed instructions respecting the treatment of men who have been bitten by rabid dogs, and dwells on the dangers attending such wounds. After recommending suction of the bitten part by means of a dry cupping glass, and thereafter the application of the actual cautery or of strong caustics, and the employment of baths and various internal remedies, he says: "Idque cum ita per triduum factum est, tutus esse homo a periculo videtur. Solet autem ex eo vulnere, ubi parum occursum est, aquae timor nasci, graeci appellant. Miserrimum genus morbi; in quo simul aeger et siti et aquae metu crciatur; quo oppressis in angusto spes est." Subsequently Galen described minutely the phenomena of hydrophobia, and recommended the excision of the wounded part as a protection against the disease. Throughout many succeeding centuries little or nothing was added to the facts which the early physicians had made known upon the subject. The malady was regarded with universal horror and dread, and the unfortunate sufferers were generally abandoned by all around them and left to their terrible fate. In later times the investigations of Boerhaave, Gerard van Swieten (i700-1772), John Hunter, François Magcndîe (1783-1855), Gilbert Brcschet (1784-1845), Virchow, Albert Reder, as also of William Youatt (1776-1847), George Fleming, Mcynell, Karl Hertwig (1798-1881), and others, have furnished" important information; but all these were put into the shade* by the researehes of Pasteur.

The disease is communicated by the secretions of the mouth of the affected animal entering a wound or abrasion of the human skin or mucous membrane. In the great majority of cases (00%) this is due to the bite of a. rabid dog, but bites of rabid cats, wolves, foxes, jackals, &c., are occasionally the means of conveying the disease. Numerous popular fallacies still prevail on the subject of hydrophobia. Thus it is supposed that the bile of an angry dog may produce the disease, and all the more if the animal should subsequently develop symptoms of rabies. The ground for this erroneous notion is the fact, which is unquestionable, that animals in whom rabies is in the stage of incubation, during which there are few if any symptoms, may by their bites convey the disease, though fortunately during this early stage they are little disposed to bite. The bite oí a non-rabid animal, however enraged, cannot give rise to hydrophobia.

The period of incubation of the disease, or that time which elapses between the introduction of the virus and the development of the symptoms, appears to vary in a remarkable degree, being in some cases as short as a fortnight, and in others as long as several months or even years. On an average il seems to be from about six weeks to three months, but it mainly depends on the part bitten; bites on the head are the most dangerous. The incubation period is also said to be shorter in children. The rare instances of the appearance of hydrophobia many years, after the introduction of the poison are always more or less open to question as to subsequent inoculation.

When the disease is about to declare itself it not infrequently happens that the wound, which had quickly and entirely healed after the bile, begins to exhibit evidence of irritation or inflammatory action, or at least to be the seat of morbid sensations such as numbness, tingling or itching. The symptoms characterizing the premonitory stage are great mental depression and disquietude, together with restlessness and a kind of indefinite fear. There is an unusual tendency to talk: and the articulation is abrupt and rapid. Although in some instances the patients will not acknowledge that they have been previously bitten, and deny it with great obstinacy, yet generally they are well aware of the nature of their malady, and speak despairingly of ¡15 consequences. There is in this early stage a certain amount of constitutional disturbance showing itself by feverishness, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, headache, great nervous excitability, respiration of a peculiar sighing 01 sobbing character, and even occasionally a noticeable a version to liquids. These symptoms— constituting what is termed the melancholic stage—continue in general for one or two days, when they are succeeded by the stage of excitement in which all the characteristic phenomena of the malady are fully developed. Sometimes the disease first shows itself in this stage, without antecedent symptoms.

The agitation of the sufferer now becomes greatly increased, and the countenance exhibits anxiety and terror. There is noticed a marked embarrassment of the breathing but the most striking and terrible features of this stage are the effects produced by attempts to swallow fluids. The patient suffers from thirst and desires eagerly to drink, but on making the effort is seized with a most violent suffocative paroxysm produced by spasm of the muscles of swallowing and breathing, which continues for several seconds, and is succeeded by a feeling of intense alarm and distress. With great caution and determination the attempt is renewed, but only to be followed with a repetition of the seizure, until the unhappy sufferer ceases from sheer dread to try to quench the thirst which torments him. Indeed the very thought of doing so suffices to bring on a choking paroxysm, as does also the sound of the running of water. The patient is extremely sensitive to any kind of external impression; a bright light, a loud noise, a breath of cool air, contact with any one, are all apt to bring on one of these seizures.

But besides these suffocative attacks there also occur general convulsions affecting the whole muscular system of the body, and occasionally a condition of tetanic spasm. These various paroxysms increase in frequency and severity with the advance of the disease, but alternate with intervals of comparative quiet, in which, however, there is intense anxiety and more or less constant difficulty of breathing, accompanied with a peculiar sonorous expiration, which has suggested the notion that the patient barks like a dog. In many instances there is great mental disturbance, with fits of maniacal excitement, in which he strikes at every one about him, and accuses them of being the cause of his sufferings—these attacks being succeeded by calm intervals in which he expresses great regret for his violent behaviour. During all this stage of the disease the patient is tormented with a viscid secretion accumulating in his mouth, which from dread of swallowing he is constantly spilling about him. There may also be noticed snapping movements of the jaws as if he were attempting to bite, but these are in reality a manifestation of the spasmodic action which affects the muscles generally. There is no great amount of fever, but there is constipation, diminished flow of urine, and often sexual excitement.

After two or three days of suffering of the most terrible description the patient succumbs, death taking place cither in a paroxysm of choking, or on the other hand in a tranquil manner from exhaustion, all the symptoms having abated, and the power of swallowing returned before the end. The duration of the disease from the first declaration of the symptoms is generally from three to five days.

Apart from the inoculation method (see below), the treatment of most avail is that which is directed towards preventing the absorption of the poison into the system. This may be accomplished by excision of the part involved in the bite of the rabid animal, or, where this from its locality is impracticable, in the application to the wound of some chemical agent which will destroy the activity of the virus, such as potassa fusa, lunar caustic (nitrate of silver), or the actual cautery in the form of a red-hot wire. The part should be thoroughly acted on by these agents, no matter what amount of temporary suffering this may occasion. Such applications should be resorted to immediately after the bite has been inflicted, or as soon thereafter as possible. Further, even though many hours or days should elapse, these local remedies should still be applied; for if, as appears probable, some at least of the virus remains for long at the injured part, the removal or effectual destruction of this may prevent the dread consequences of ¡ts absorption. Every effort should be made to tranquillize and reassure the patient.

Two special points of interest have arisen in recent years in connection with this disease. One is the Pasteur treatment by inoculation with rabie virus (sec also PARASITIC DISEASES), and the other was the attempt of the government to exterminate rabies in the British Isles by muzzling dogs.

The Pasteur treatment was first applied to human beings in 1885 after prolonged investigation and experimental trial on animals. It is based on the fact that a virus, capable of giving rabies by inoculation, can be extracted from the tissues of a rabid animal and then intensified or attenuated at pleasure. It appears that the strength of the rabie virus, as determined by inoculation, is constant in the same species of animal, but is modified by passing through another species. For instance, the natural virus of dogs is always of the same strength, but when inoculated into monkeys it becomes weakened, and the process of attenuation can be carried on by passing the virus through a succession of monkeys, until it loses the power of causing death. If this weakened virus is then passed back through guinea-pigs, dogs or rabbits, it regains its former strength. Again, if it be passed through a succession of dogs it becomes intensified up to a maximum of strength which is called the virus fixe. Pasteur further discovered that the strength can be modified by temperature and by keeping the dried tissues of a rabid animal containing the virus. Thus, if the spinal cord of a rabid dog be preserved in a dry state, the virus loses strength 'day by day.

The, system of treatment consists in making an emulsion of the cord and graduating the strength of the dose by using a succession of cords, which have been kept for a progressively diminishing length of time. Those which have been kept for fourteen days are used as a starting point, yielding virus of a minimum strength. They are followed by preparations of diminishing age and increasing strength, day by day, up to the maximum, which is three days old. These are successively injected into the circulatory system. The principle is the artificial acquisition by the patient of resistance to the rabie virus, which is presumed to be already in the system but has not yet become active, by accustoming him gradually to its toxic effect, beginning with a weak form and progressively increasing the dose. It is not exactly treatment of the disease, because it is useless or nearly so when the disease has commenced, nor is it exactly preventive, for the patient has already been bitten. It must be regarded as a kind of anticipatory cure. The cords are cut into sections and preserved dry in sterilized flasks plugged with cotton-wool. Another method of preparing the inoculatory vims, which has been devised by Guido Tizzoni and Eugenio Centanni, consists in subjecting the virus fixe to peptic digestion by diluted gastric juice for varying periods of time.

The first patient was treated by Pasteur's system in July 18S5. He was successively inoculated with emulsions made from cords that had been kept fourteen and ten days, then eleven and eight days, then eight, seven, six days, and so on. Two forms of treatment are now used—(1) the "simple," in which the course from weak to strong virus is extended over nine days; (2) the " intensive," in which the maximum is reached in seven days. The latter is used in cases of very bad bites and those of some standing, in which it is desirable to lose no time. Two days are compressed into one at the commencement by making injections morning and evening instead of once a day, so that the fifth-day cord is reached in four days instead of six, as in the "simple" treatment. When the maximum—the third-day cord—is reached the injections are continued with fifth-, fourth-, and third-day cords. The whole course is fifteen days in the simple treatment and twenty-one in the intensive. The doses injected range from 1 to 3 cubic centimetres. Injections are made alternately into the right and left flanks.

For people that develop hydrophobia during treatment or within 15 days of treatment being completed, it is held that persons who die within that period have their nervous centres invaded by virus before the cure has time to act. The true mortality should therefore be considerably higher. For instance, in 1898 three deaths came within this category, which just doubles the mortality; and in 1899 the additional deaths were six, bringing the mortality up to two-anda-half times that indicated in the table. When, however, the additional deaths are included the results remain sufficiently striking, if two assumptions are granted—(1) that all the persons treated have been bitten by rabid animals; (2) that a large proportion of persons so bitten usually have hydrophobia. Unfortunately, both these assumptions lack proof, and therefore the evidence of the efficacy of the treatment cannot be said to satisfy a strictly scientificstandard. With regard to the first point, the patients are divided into three categories;—(1) those bitten by an animal the rabidity of which is proved by the development of rabies in other animals bitten by it or inoculated from its spinal cord; (2) those bitten by an animal pronounced rabid on a veterinary examination; (3) those bitten by an animal suspected of being rabid. The number of patients in each category, in 1898 was (f) 141, (2) 855, (3) 469; and in 1899 it was (1) 152, (2) 1099, (3) 363. As might be expected, the vast majority came under the second and third heads, in which the evidence of rabidity is doubtful or altogether lacking.

With regard to the second point, the proportion of persons bitten by rabid animals who ordinarily develop hydrophobia has only been "estimated" from very inadequate data. Otto Bollinger from a series of collected statistics states that before the introduction of the Pasteur treatment, of patients dogs undoubtedly rabid 47% died, the rate being )}% in those whose wounds had been cauterized and 83% when there had been no local treatment. If the number of rabid dogs be compared with the deaths from hydrophobia in any year or series of years, it can hardly be very high. For instance, in 189s, 668 dogs, besides other animals, were killed and certified to be rabid in England, and the deaths from hydrophobia were twenty. Of course this proves nothing, as the number of persons bitten is not known, but the difference between the amount of rabies and of hydrophobia is suggestively great in view of the marked propensity of rabid dogs to bite, nor is it accounted for by the fact that some of the persons bitten were treated at the Institut Pasteur. A comparison of the annual mortality from hydrophobia in France before and after the introduction of the treatment would afford decisive evidence as to its efficacy; but unfortunately no such comparison can be made for lack of vital statistics in that country. The experience of the Paris hospitals, however, points to a decided diminution of mortality. On the whole it must be said, in the absence of further data, that the Pasteur treatment certainly diminishes the danger of hydrophobia from the biles of rabid animals.

More recently treatment with an anti-rabic serum has been suggested (see PARASITIC DISEASES). Victor Babes and Lepp and later Guido Tizzoni and Eugenio Centanni have worked out a method of serum treatment curative and protective. Iri this method not the rabic poison itself, as in the Pasteur treatment, but the protective substance formed is injected into the tissues. The scrum of a vaccinated animal is capable of neutralizing the power of the virus ol rabies not only when mixed with the virus before injection but even when injected simultaneously or within twenty-four hours after the introduction of the virus. These authors showed that the serum of a rabbit protects a rabbit better than does the scrum of a dog, and vice versa. At the end of twenty days' injections they found they could obtain such a large quantity of anti-rabic substance in the serum of an animal, that even 1 part of scrum to 25,000 of the body weight would protect an animal. This process differs from that of Pasteur in so far as that in place of promoting the formation of the antidote within the body of the patient, by a process of vaccination with progressively stronger and stronger virus, this part of the process is carried on in an animal, Babes using the dog and Centanni the sheep, the blood serum of which is injected. This method of vaccination is useful as a protective to those in charge of kennels.

The attempt to stamp out rabies in Great Britain was an experiment undertaken by the government in the public interest. The principal means adopted were the muzzling of Mtiztiinx (jQgg m m[ected areas, and prolonged quarantine fcj England, imported animals. The efficacy of dog-muzzling in checking the spread of rabies and diminishing its prevalence has been repeatedly proved in various countries. Liable as other animals may be to the disease, in England at least the dog is pre-eminently the vehicle of contagion and the great source of danger to human beings. There is a difference of opinion on the way in which muzzling acts, though there can be none as to the effect it produces in reducing rabies. Probably it acts rather by securing the destruction of ownerless and stray— which generally includes rabid—dogs than by preventing biting; for though it may prevent snapping, even the wire-cage muzzle does not prevent furious dogs from biting, and it is healthy, not rabid, dogs that wear the muzzle. It has therefore been suggested that a collar would have the same effect, if all collarlcss dogs were seized; but the evidence goes to show that it has not, perhaps because rabid dogs are more likely to stray from home with their collars, which are constantly worn, than with muzzles which are not, and so escape seizure. Moreover, it is much easier for the police to see whether a dog is wearing a muzzle or not than it is to make sure about the collar. However this may be, the muzzle has proved more efficacious, but it was not applied systematically in England until a late dale. Sometimes the regulations were in the hands of the government, and sometimes they were left to local authorities; in cither case they were allowed to lapse as soon as rabies had died down.

In April 1897 the Board of Agriculture entered on a systematic attempt to exterminate rabies by the means indicated. The plan was to enforce muzzling over large areas in which the disease existed, and to maintain it for six months after the occurrence of the last case. In spite of much opposition and criticism, this was resolutely carried out under Mr Walter Long, the responsible minister, and met with great success. By the spring of 1899— that is, in two years—the disease had disappeared in Great Britain, except for one area in Wales; and, with this exception, muzzling was everywhere relaxed in October 1S99. It was taken off in Wales also in the following May, no case having occurred since November 1899. Rabies was then pronounced extinct. During the summer of 1900, however, it reappeared in Wales, and several counties were again placed under the order. The year 1001 was the third in succession in which no death from hydrophobia was registered in the United Kingdom. In the ten years preceding 1899, 104 deaths were registered, the death-rate reaching 30 in 1889 and averaging 29 annually. In 1902 two deaths from hydrophobia were registered. From that date to June 1909 (the latest available for the purpose of this article) no death from hydrophobia was notified in the United Kingdom.

See Annoles de I'lnstitut Pasteur, from 1886; Journal of the Board of Agriculture, 1899; Makins, "Hydrophobia," in Trcves's System of Surgery; Wood head, "Rabies,' in AUbutt's System of Medicine.


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